India - One of the largest growers and producers of tea in the world
With 70% of consumption within the country, India is one of the largest tea producers in the globe and among the top 5 per-capita tea consumers. Starting from 1600 AD, India has built many global brands and is seen as one of the most technology-equipped tea industries.
TMR (Transparency Market Research) predicts the global tea market to reach US$20.0 bn by the end of 2025, from US$12.8 bn in 2017. If these figures hold true, the global tea market will exhibit a CAGR of 5.7% between 2017 and 2025. Based on type, the demand for crush, tear, curl (CTC) tea is expected to remain considerably high through the course of the forecast period. Regionally, Asia-Pacific emerged dominant in the global market. Between 2017 and 2025, the Asia-Pacific tea market is likely to rise at a CAGR of 6.8%.
In India, originally, tea is indigenous to the eastern and northern parts of India, but the tea industry has expanded and grown tremendously over the years, making India one of the largest growers and producers of tea in the world.
The tea production in India was approximately 978,000 tonne as of 2009, in terms of consumption, export and production of tea. It accounts for 31% of the global production of tea. India has retained its leadership over the tea industry for the last 150 years. The total turnover of this industry is roughly Rs 9,500 crore. Since 1947, the tea production in India has increased by 250% and the land used for production has increased by 40%.
In 2016, India produced 1,267.36 million kg of tea, all being available for packaging in one or the other forms. India also exports tea and in 2017 the total tea exports increased by 6.3%. Major tea importing countries in 2017 were Russia, the United States, the United Kingdom, Egypt, Iran, Saudi Arabia, Germany, Morocco, Japan, France, the UAE, Canada, Vietnam, the Netherlands, and Kazakhstan.
The growing demand for tea for its aroma and quality is majorly driving the India tea industry. Moreover, India has experienced the declining trend in tea industry in 2017, majorly due to the government policies such as GST and demonetisation, but in the coming years from 2018, the tea industry is expected to re-emerge and flourish. Goldstein Research analysts forecast that the India tea industry outlook is set to reach US$1 billion by 2025, growing at a CAGR of 5.8% over the forecast period (2017-2025).
The varieties of tea produced/ processed in India
Darjeeling Tea: Darjeeling is where the breath of the Himalayas surrounds the traveller and the deep green valleys sing all around. First planted in the early 1800s, the incomparable quality of Darjeeling teas is the result of its locational climate, soil conditions, altitude and meticulous processing. About 10 million kilogram are grown every year, spread over 17,500 hectare of land. The tea has its own special aroma, that rare fragrance that fills the senses. Tea from Darjeeling has been savoured by connoisseurs all over the world. Like all luxury brands, Darjeeling tea is aspired to, worldwide. Darjeeling tea is grown at elevations ranging from 600 to 2,000 m above sea level.
Assam Tea: Assam means ‘one without equal’ and that is really true about its teas. The strong tea, grown on the rolling plains by the Brahmaputra river that weaves her way through vales and hills, is famous for its smooth malty flavour. A taste crafted by the region’s rich loamy soil, unique climate and liberal rainfall. Assam tea is grown at elevations ranging from 45 to 60 m above sea level with annual rainfall 250 to 380 cm.
Nilgiri Tea: The beautiful Nilgiri Hills, sprawling through the states of Tamil Nadu, Karnataka and Kerala, are home to the pastoral Toda tribe and tea gardens that create the fragrant cup of tea. Nilgiri tea has a slightly fruity, minty flavour, probably because trees like the Blue Gum and Eucalyptus dot the region. And perhaps the spices produced in close proximity to the tea gardens lend the light brew its briskness. The balanced blend of flavour and body makes Nilgiri tea a ‘blender’s dream. Nilgiri tea is grown at elevations ranging from 1,000 to 2,500 m above sea level with annual rainfall of 150 to 230 cm.
Kangra Tea: The climate, the characteristic terrain and soil conditions, and the coolness of the snow clad mountains in Himachal’s famous Kangra region; all play a role in crafting a delightfully distinct cup of quality tea. Particularly the first flush with an aroma and flavour that has an unmistakable tinge of fruitiness. The demand for Kangra tea has been increasing steadily and much of it is bought by natives and exported to Kabul and Central Asia via Peshawar. Kangra tea is a registered Geographical Indication (GI). Nilgiri tea is grown at elevations ranging from 900 to 1,400 m above sea level with annual rainfall of 270 to 350 cm.
Munnar Tea: The land where the three mountain streams Mudrapuzha, Nallathanni and Kundala meet is home to tea that is a blend of health and taste. The teas are cultivated in the undisturbed ecosystem of the Western Ghats. With some tea plantations at 2,200 m above sea level, Munnar has some of the highest growing tea regions in the world. Nilgiri tea is grown at elevations ranging from 950 to 2,600 m above sea level with annual rainfall of 130 to 700 cm.
Other popular varieties are Masala and Sikkim Tea which are grown in India with significant production and export.
Governance In India, all the production and certification is been governed by Tea Board of India. The present Tea Board is functioning as a statutory body of the Central government under the Ministry of Commerce. The Board is constituted of 31 members (including Chairman) drawn from Members of Parliament, tea producers, tea traders, tea brokers, consumers, and representatives of governments from the principal tea producing states, and trade unions. The board is reconstituted every three years.
Functions of Tea Board of India The Tea Board has wide functions and responsibilities under the direction of the Central government. Briefly the primary functions of the Tea Board are as under:
- Rendering financial and technical assistance for cultivation, manufacture and marketing of tea
- Export promotion
- Aiding Research and Development activities for augmentation of tea production and improvement of tea quality
- Extend financial assistance in a limited way to the plantation workers and their wards through labour welfare schemes
- To encourage and assist both financially and technically the unorganised small growers sector
- Collection and maintenance of statistical data and publication
- Such other activities as are assigned from time to time by the Central government.
Source - http://www.fnbnews.com/Top-News/india--one-of-the-largest-growers-and-producers-of-tea-in-the-world-47002